Here are some links to lists of fake news sites:
Fake news is information posing as news, which has not been verified and is not true. It could be clickbait, rumours, hoaxes, propaganda, or satire. Today fake news is overwhelmingly web-driven, but fake news is nothing new.
Check out this explainer on Fake News and the Spread of Disinformation from Journalist's Resource, from the Harvard Shorenstein Center on Media Politics and Public Policy.
Timeline of Key moments in the latest fake news debate from Claire Wardle at FirstDraftNews. FirstDraftNews works with it's media partners to improve online news verification, reporting and sharing.
2016's top fake news stories were collected by C|net from the fact-checking sites Snopes, Factcheck,org and Politifact.
Who's reading fake news? According to the Jumpshot Tech Blog:
Data on Facebook’s fake news problem, The Jumpshot Tech Blog, Nov. 29, 2016
Confirmation Bias: "subconscious tendency to seek and interpret information and other evidence in ways that affirm our existing beliefs, ideas, expectations, and/or hypotheses. Therefore, confirmation bias is both affected by and feeds our implicit biases. It can be most entrenched around beliefs and ideas that we are strongly attached to or that provoke a strong emotional response." Source: Facing History and Ourselves (This is a link to a lesson plan).
SciCheck FactCheck.org’s SciCheck feature focuses exclusively on false and misleading scientific claims that are made by partisans to influence public policy.
FlackCheck political literacy companion site to the award-winning FactCheck.org. The site provides resources designed to help viewers recognize flaws in arguments in general and political ads in particular. Video resources point out deception and incivility in political rhetoric.
SourceWatch (Center for Media and Democracy) profiles the activities of front groups, PR spinners, industry-friendly experts, industry-funded organizations, and think tanks trying to manipulate public opinion on behalf of corporations or government.
How To Spot Fake News - Infographic Tipsheet from IFLA
CUNY J-School Fake News Cheat Sheet
This LibGuide was inspired by these excellent works:
Ten Questions for Fake News Detection from The News Literacy Project's Checkology Virtual Classroom
7 Types of Mis- and Dis- information from First Draft News
Information and its Counterfeits: Propaganda, Misinformation and Disinformation from Johns Hopkins Sheridan Libraries
Changing Behavior Through Education
We can empower students and readers through education/advocacy about the need for truth in politics, and the efforts to use fake news to destabilizer our democracy, so that they change the way they engage with news, and take steps to verify what they read and share:
From Towards a Post-Lies Future: Fighting "Alternative Facts" and "Post-Truth" Politics by Gleb Tsipursky in The Humanist.
Since ancient Greece, truth in politics has been vital for a democracy to function properly. Citizens need to care about and know the reality of political affairs, at least in broad terms, to make wise decisions regarding which politicians and policies to support. Otherwise, what reason do politicians have to care about serving the true interests of the citizenry? They can simply use emotional manipulation and lies to procure and stay in power, paving the way for corruption and authoritarianism
Indeed, truth in politics is a common good just like clean air and water, and the pollution of truth will devastate our political system just as environmental pollution devastates our planet and our physical health. Fortunately, we can learn from the successes of the environmental movement. It started with small groups of motivated and informed people engaging in sustained education and advocacy. As a result of these efforts, regular citizens increasingly changed their everyday behavior through recycling, repurposing, and composting, while politicians passed pro-environmental legislation such as the Clean Air Act
The protruth movement will require early advocates to act from the same kind of marginalized political position as early environmental activists, fighting both against the political status quo and the tendency of our brains toward lazy thinking.
The Filter Bubble is Eli Pariser's theory that personalization on websites and social media we use, creates a filter bubble sending us only information, news and suggestions that confirm our views and likes, and distancing us from other information.
Tools to pop your filter bubble from The Simple Psychological Trick to Political Persuasion, The Atlantic:
To fight fake news, Facebook will be "collaborating with news organizations to develop products, learning from journalists about ways we can be a better partner, and working with publishers and educators on how we can equip people with the knowledge they need to be informed readers in the digital age."
Eli Pariser, the co-founder of Upworthy and author of The Filter Bubble has created a Google Doc to crowdsource Design Solutions for Fake News.
The News Integrity Initiative at the CUNY J-School is a $14 million fund supporting efforts to connect journalists, technologists, academic institutions, non-profits, and other organizations from around the world to foster informed and engaged communities, combat media manipulation, and support inclusive, constructive, and respectful civic discourse.
The fund is seeded with grants from a coalition of partners, which currently include Facebook, Craig Newmark Philanthropic Fund, Ford Foundation, AppNexus, Knight Foundation, Tow Foundation, Betaworks, Mozilla, and Democracy Fund.
A crowdsourced set of materials on “alternative news” from the Oxford Institute: “Alternative Facts”: how do you cover powerful people who lie? Thanks to Professor Jeff Jarvis for sharing this resource.
The networks and other organizations that distribute news should:
Filter out fake news better
Other authorities (government, business, education) should:
Show Your Work - Be Transparent!
Showing your work, and being transparent about your reporting process is a tool to establish authenticity, and encourage discovery and engagement, according to Josh Stearns of the Democracy Fund Designing Journalism for Discovery and Engagement & Why Journalists Should Use Transparency as a Tool to Deepen Engagement.
One example of show-your-work journalism is this video Inside Washington Post reporter David Fahrenthold's investigation of Donald Trump's charitable giving
Focus on Policy, Rather Than Antics!
"The candidates’ controversies received more coverage, on average, than their views on the economy. From June until Election Day, 38 percent of the stories mentioned Mr. Trump’s various missteps, and 35 percent mentioned Mrs. Clinton’s email. Only 17 percent mentioned Mr. Trump and jobs or the economy, and only 10 percent cited Mrs. Clinton’s campaign and the economy." Why This Election Was Not About the Issues, by Lynn Vavreck for The UpShot. Vavreck is a professor of political science at the University of California, Los Angeles, and a co-author of “The Gamble,” about the 2012 presidential campaign.
"As any veteran of politics will tell you, we must watch what leaders do more than what they say. It is vital that the press mind the cookie jar. We need journalists to watch for public malfeasance, stealing, corruption, law breaking, private enrichment, rewarding friends, and abuse of power...Abuse of power is not a partisan or ideological issue. It is a moral one—and one citizens in both parties care about. But to keep their eye on that prize, the press needs to not be diverted by the magician’s patter." What the post-Trump debate over journalism gets wrong, We don’t need journalists to hold fast or change everything, but a little of both, Tom Rosenthiel
"According to Emily Thorson, a political scientist at Boston College, there is one area where people will change their minds when faced with the facts: policy, particularly when it isn’t perceived to be partisan. By covering policies rather than candidates’ antics, the press may be able to persuade with facts after all.
"'There is a tendency to blame voters, but it’s really hard to find [policy] information. It’s hard to figure out what the candidates’ policies would actually mean for your life because the media spent so much time on horse-race coverage, what they did or didn’t say, or whether they were lying,' Thorson said. 'Academics have been saying this about journalism for a long time, but I think it was especially magnified in this campaign.'" Fact-Checking Won’t Save Us From Fake News, Brooke Borel, Author of The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking, FiveThirtyEight
Call Out Lies and Bigotry!
The challenge for reporters, is that when they call out untruths, “it gives the appearance of supporting one side of the hyper-politicized debate. But it’s not support—it’s journalism.” “We need journalists to be able to say, sometimes: ‘You believe that, but it’s not true...But having a press that can do that is really hard. It requires not only journalists willing to defy powerful actors, willing to risk being called one-sided, willing to discomfort their audience, but also readers, viewers, listeners who are willing to listen to that.” Jay Rosen professor of journalism at New York University, cited in Post-Truth Politics, Nieman Reports.
"Responsible journalists should simply state to their audience that they have decided that to be anti-racist, anti-sexist, anti-homophobic, etc. is an acceptable form of bias, much as journalists of times past eventually decided it was unnecessary and abhorrent to get a quote from someone to defend lynching when writing a story about these horrific crimes." What Journalism Needs To Do Post-Election, Carrie Brown-Smith, Social journalism director at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism.