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Fact Checking, Verification & Fake News: Fake News

Web Literacy for Student Fact Checkers

Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers...and other people who care about facts, by Mike Caulfield, director of blended and networked learning at Washington State University Vancouver and head of the Digital Polarization Initiative of the American Democracy Project.

To navigate in this book, click on the down arrow next to contents

Journalism, 'Fake News' & Disinformation, Handbook for Journalism Education and Training

Understanding Confirmation Bias

Confirmation Bias: "subconscious tendency to seek and interpret information and other evidence in ways that affirm our existing beliefs, ideas, expectations, and/or hypotheses. Therefore, confirmation bias is both affected by and feeds our implicit biases. It can be most entrenched around beliefs and ideas that we are strongly attached to or that provoke a strong emotional response." Source: Facing History and Ourselves (This is a link to a lesson plan).

Who Me? Biased? A Video Series from The New York Times.

Twenty Ways to Cultivate an Open Mind 

from Overcoming Bias: A Journalist’s Guide to Culture & Context by Sue Ellen Christian

Fake News Sites

Here are some links to lists of fake news sites:

OpenSources "a curated resource for assessing online information sources. Websites in this resource range from credible news sources to misleading and outright fake websites. Headed by Melissa Zimdars of Merrimack College."

Field Guide to Fake news Purveyors,

Fake News Websites, Wikipedia

Field Guide to Fake News Purveyors,

Fact-checking Sites


Washington Post's Fact Checker

Univision’s Detector de Mentiras (Lie Detector)

AP Fact Check


NPR Politics Fact Check

Bellingcat - Crowd-sourced investigations, & training citizen journalists in conflict zones

Duke Reporters' Lab Global Fact-Checking Sites

SciCheck’s SciCheck feature focuses exclusively on false and misleading scientific claims that are made by partisans to influence public policy.

FlackCheck political literacy companion site to the award-winning The site provides resources designed to help viewers recognize flaws in arguments in general and political ads in particular. Video resources point out deception and incivility in political rhetoric.

SourceWatch (Center for Media and Democracy) profiles the activities of front groups, PR spinners, industry-friendly experts, industry-funded organizations, and think tanks trying to manipulate public opinion on behalf of corporations or government.

Fake News Facts

Fake news is information posing as news, which has not been verified and is not true. It could be clickbait, rumours, hoaxes, propaganda, or satire. Today fake news is overwhelmingly web-driven, but fake news is nothing new

Check out this explainer on Fake News and the Spread of Disinformation from Journalist's Resource, from the Harvard Shorenstein Center on Media Politics and Public Policy.

Timeline of Key moments in the latest fake news debate from Claire Wardle at FirstDraftNewsFirstDraftNews works with its media partners to improve online news verification, reporting and sharing.

2016's top fake news stories were collected by C|net from the fact-checking sites SnopesFactcheck,org and Politifact.

Who's reading fake news? According to the Jumpshot Tech Blog:

  • Facebook referrals accounted for 50 percent of total traffic to fake news sites and 20 percent of total traffic to reputable news sites.
  • The oldest age group analyzed, 65 and over, was the most likely to click on fake and hyperpartisan news.
  • Millennials are 16 percent less likely to click on fake news from Facebook compared to the rest of the population.

Data on Facebook’s fake news problem, The Jumpshot Tech Blog, Nov. 29, 2016